Intrathecal drug pumps: These devices administer drugs directly to the spinal fluid, so that opioids and local anesthetic agents can be delivered to pain-signaling targets in the spinal cord at doses far lower than those required for oral administration. This technique decreases side effects and increases drug effectiveness.
The pump is the size of a hockey puck and is implanted in the abdomen. It contains a refillable reservoir connected to an alarm that beeps when the reservoir is low. The pump is programmable with an electronic telemetry wand. The program can be adjusted if muscle tone is worse at certain times of the day or night.